Translation – Higher tier
Translation takes place in the ribosomes that are found in the cytoplasm. This is where the messenger RNA is ‘interpreted’ and the new protein formed. The stages are:
- The mRNA attaches to a ribosome. The ribosome “reads” the mRNA.
- The ribosome decodes the mRNA in groups of three – base triplets or codons – which are complementary to bases in transfer RNA (tRNA).
- The tRNA is specific to an amino acid that it collects and returns to the mRNA.
- The amino acids are now lined up in order of the instructions on the mRNA.
- Bonds form between the amino acids and a polypeptide chain is formed.
- The polypeptide chain folds and becomes a specific shape forming a protein.