Could not believe that this article is in BBC. Well written and simple to understand.
Genes are sections of the DNA. Each gene has the code for creating a specific protein. The sequence of bases in the gene controls which amino acids are created and joined to make a specific new protein (or enzyme) molecule.
Amino acids and proteins
Each gene acts as a code, or set of instructions, for making a particular protein. Some of these proteins control the cell’s internal chemistry. They tell the cell what to do, give the organism its characteristics, and determine the way its body works.
To enable genes to code for proteins, the bases A, T, G and C get together not in pairs but in triplets. This is how it works:
- Each protein is made up of large numbers of amino acid molecules.
- Each triplet of bases codes for one particular amino acid.
- Amino acids are made in the number and order dictated by the number and order of base triplets.
- Finally, the amino acid molecules join together in a long chain to make a protein molecule. The number and sequence of amino acids determines which protein results.
Since many of the proteins made are enzymes, genes control the cell’s internal chemistry.