strand displacement amplification

SDA is an isothermal nucleic acid amplification method. Primer contains a restriction site is annealed to template. Amplification primers are then annealed to 5′ adjacent sequences (form a nick) and start amplification at a fixed temperature. Newly synthesized DNA are nicked by a restriction enzyme, polymerase starts amplification again, displacing the newly synthesized strands. 109 copies of DNA can be made in one reaction.

Strand Displacement Amplification (SDA) is an isothermal, in vitro nucleic acid amplification technique based upon the ability of HincII to nick the unmodified strand of a hemiphosphorothioate form of its recognition site, and the ability of exonuclease deficient klenow (exo- klenow) to extend the 3′-end at the nick and displace the downstream DNA strand. Exponential amplification results from coupling sense and antisense reactions in which strands displaced from a sense reaction serve as target for an antisense reaction and vice versa. In the original design (G. T. Walker, M. C. Little, J. G. Nadeau and D. D. Shank (1992) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci 89, 392-396), the target DNA sample is first cleaved with a restriction enzyme(s) in order to generate a double-stranded target fragment with defined 5′- and 3′-ends that can then undergo SDA. Although effective, target generation by restriction enzyme cleavage presents a number of practical limitations. We report a new target generation scheme that eliminates the requirement for restriction enzyme cleavage of the target sample prior to amplification. The method exploits the strand displacement activity of exo- klenow to generate target DNA copies with defined 5′- and 3′-ends. The new target generation process occurs at a single temperature (after initial heat denaturation of the double-stranded DNA). The target copies generated by this process are then amplified directly by SDA. The new protocol improves overall amplification efficiency. Amplification efficiency is also enhanced by improved reaction conditions that reduce nonspecific binding of SDA primers. Greater than 10(7)-fold amplification of a genomic sequence from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is achieved in 2 hours at 37 degrees C even in the presence of as much as 10 micrograms of human DNA per 50 microL reaction. The new target generation scheme can also be applied to techniques separate from SDA as a means of conveniently producing double-stranded fragments with 5′- and 3′-sequences modified as desired.

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